SERVANT OF THE SERVANTS OF GOD
TOGETHER WITH THE FATHERS OF THE SACRED COUNCIL
FOR EVERLASTING MEMORY
DOGMATIC CONSTITUTION ON DIVINE REVELATION
1. Hearing the Word of God with reverence and proclaiming it with
faith, the sacred Synod takes its direction from these words of St
John: "We announce to you the eternal life which dwelt with the
Father and was made visible to us. What we have seen and heard we
announce to you, so that you may have fellowship with us and our
common fellowship be with the Father and His Son Jesus Christ" (1
John 1:2-3). Therefore, following in the footsteps of the Council
of Trent and of the First Vatican Council, this present Council
wishes to set forth authentic doctrine on divine revelation and how
it is handed on, so that by hearing the message of salvation the
whole world may believe, by believing it may hope, and by hoping it
may love .
2. In His goodness and wisdom God chose to reveal Himself and to
make known to us the hidden purpose of His will (see Eph. 1:9) by
which through Christ, the Word made flesh, man might in the Holy
Spirit have access to the Father and come to share in the divine
nature (see Eph. 2:18; 2 Peter 1:4). Through this revelation,
therefore, the invisible God (see Col. 1:15; 1 Tim. 1:17) out of
the abundance of His love speaks to men as friends (see Ex. 33:11;
John 15:14-15) and lives among them (see Bar. 3:38), so that He may
invite and take them into fellowship with Himself. This plan of
revelation is realized by deeds and words having an inner unity:
the deeds wrought by God in the history of salvation manifest and
confirm the teaching and realities signified by the words, while
the words proclaim the deeds and clarify the mystery contained in
them. By this revelation then, the deepest truth about God and the
salvation of man shines out for our sake in Christ, who is both the
mediator and the fullness of all revelation .
3. God, who through the Word creates all things (see John 1:3)
and keeps them in existence, gives men an enduring witness to
Himself in created realities (see Rom. 1:19-20). Planning to make
known the way of heavenly salvation, He went further and from the
start manifested Himself to our first parents. Then after their
fall His promise of redemption aroused in them the hope of being
saved (see Gen. 3:15) and from that time on He ceaselessly kept the
human race in His care, to give eternal life to those who
perseveringly do good in search of salvation (see Rom. 2:6-7).
Then, at the time He had appointed He called Abraham in order make
of him a great nation (see Gen. 12:2). Through the patriarchs, and
after them through Moses and the prophets, He taught this people to
acknowledge Himself the one living and true God, provident father
and just judge, and to wait for the Saviour promised by Him, and in
this manner prepared the way for the Gospel down through the
4. Then, after speaking in many and varied ways through the
prophets, "now at last in these days God has spoken to us in His
Son" (Heb. 1:1-2). For He sent His Son, the eternal Word, who
enlightens all men, so that He might dwell among men and tell them
of the innermost being of God (see John 1:1-18). Jesus Christ,
therefore, the Word made flesh, was sent as "a man to men" . He
"speaks the words of God" (John 3:34), and completes the work of
salvation which His Father gave to Him to do (see John 5:36, 17:4).
To see Jesus is to see His Father (see John 14:9). For this reason
Jesus perfected revelation by fulfilling it through his whole work
of making Himself present and manifesting Himself: through His
words and deeds, His signs and wonders, but especially through His
death and glorious resurrection from the dead and final sending of
the Spirit of truth. Moreover He confirmed with divine testimony
what revelation proclaimed, that God is with us to free us from the
darkness of sin and death, and to raise us up to life eternal.
The Christian dispensation, therefore, as the new and definitive
covenant, will never pass away and we now await no further new
public revelation before the glorious manifestation of our Lord
Jesus Christ (see 1 Tim. 6:14 and Tit. 2:13).
5. "The obedience of faith" (Rom. 16:26; see Rom. 1:5; 2 Cor.
10:5-6) "is to be given to God who reveals, an obedience by which
man commits his whole self freely to God, offering the full
submission of intellect and will to God who reveals" , and
freely assenting to the truth revealed by Him. TO make this act of
faith, the grace of God and the interior help of the Holy Spirit
must precede and assist, moving the heart and turning it to God,
opening the eyes of the mind and giving "joy and ease to everyone
in assenting to the truth and believing it" . To bring about an
ever deeper understanding of revelation the same Holy Spirit
constantly brings faith to completion by His gifts.
6. Through divine revelation, God chose to show forth and
communicate Himself and the eternal decisions of His will
regarding the salvation of men. That is to say, He chose to share
with them those divine treasures which totally transcend the
understanding of the human mind .
As a sacred synod has affirmed, "God, the beginning and end of
all things, can be known with certainty from created reality by the
light of human reason" (See Rom. 1:20); but it teaches that it is
through His revelation "that those religious truths which are by
their nature accessible to human reason can be known by all men
with ease, with solid certitude and with no trace of error, even in
this present state of the human race" .
HANDING ON DIVINE REVELATION
7. In His gracious goodness, God has seen to it that what He had
revealed for the salvation of all nations would abide perpetually
in its full integrity and be handed on to all generations.
Therefore Christ the Lord in whom the full revelation of the
supreme God is brought to completion (see 2 Cor. 1:30; 3:15; 4:6),
commissioned the Apostles to preach to all men that Gospel which is
the source of all saving truth and moral teaching , and to
impart to them heavenly gifts. This Gospel had been promised in
former times through the prophets, and Christ Himself had fulfilled
it and promulgated it with His lips. This commission was
faithfully fulfilled by the Apostles who, by their oral preaching,
by example, and by observances handed on what they had received
from the lips of Christ, from living with Him, and from what He
did, or what they had learned through the prompting of the Holy
Spirit. The commission was fulfilled, too, by those Apostles and
apostolic men who under the inspiration of the same Holy Spirit
committed the message of salvation to writing .
But in order to keep the Gospel forever whole and alive within
the Church, the Apostles left bishops as their successors, "handing
over" to them "the authority to teach in their own place" .
This sacred tradition, therefore, and Sacred Scripture of both the
Old and New Testaments are like a mirror in which the pilgrim
Church on earth looks at God, from whom she has received
everything, until she is brought finally to see Him as He is, face
to face (see 1 John 3:2).
8. And so the apostolic preaching, which is expressed in a
special way in the inspired books, was to be preserved by an
unending succession of preachers until the end of time. Therefore
the Apostles, handing on what they themselves had received, warn
the faithful to hold fast to the traditions which they have learned
either by word of mouth or by letter (see 2 Thess. 2:15), and to
fight in defense of the faith handed on once and for all (see Jud.
3) . Now what was handed on by the Apostles includes everything
which contributes toward the holiness of life and increase in faith
of the People of God; and hands on to all generations all that she
herself is, all that she believes.
This tradition which comes from the Apostles develops in the
Church with the help of the Holy Spirit . For there is a growth
in the understanding of the realities and the words which have been
made by believers, who treasure these things in their hearts (see
Luke 2:19, 51), through a penetrating understanding of the
spiritual realities which they experience, and through the
preaching of those who have received through episcopal succession
the sure gift of truth. For as the centuries succeed one another,
the Church constantly moves forward toward the fullness of divine
truth until the words of God reach their complete fulfillment in
The words of the holy Fathers witness to the presence of this
living tradition, whose wealth is poured into the practice and life
of the believing and praying Church. Through the same tradition
the Church's full canon of the sacred books is known, and the
sacred writings themselves are more profoundly understood and
unceasingly made active in her; and thus God, who spoke of old,
uninterruptedly converses with the bride of His beloved Son; and
the Holy Spirit, through whom the living voice of the Gospel
resounds in the Church, and through her, in the world, leads unto
all truth those who believe and makes the Word of Christ dwell
abundantly in them (see Col. 3:16).
9. Hence there exists a close connection and communication
between sacred tradition and sacred Scripture. For both of them,
flowing from the same divine wellspring, in a certain way merge
into a unity and tend toward the same end. For sacred Scripture is
the Word of God inasmuch as it is consigned to writing under the
inspiration of the divine Spirit, while sacred tradition takes the
Word of God entrusted by Christ the Lord and the Holy Spirit to the
Apostles, and hands it on to their successors in its full purity,
so that led by the light of the Spirit of truth, they may in
proclaiming it preserve this Word of God faithfully, explain it,
and make it more widely known. Consequently it is not from sacred
Scripture alone that the Church draws her certainty about
everything which has been revealed. Therefore both sacred
tradition and sacred Scripture are to be accepted and venerated
with the same sense of loyalty and reverence .
10. Sacred tradition and sacred Scripture form one sacred deposit
of the Word of God, committed to the Church. Holding fast to this
deposit the entire holy people united with their shepherds remain
always steadfast in the teaching of the Apostles, in the common
life, in the breaking of the bread and in prayers (see Acts 8:42,
Greek text), so that holding to, practicing and professing the
heritage of the faith, it becomes on the part of the bishops and
faithful a single common effort .
But the task of authentically interpreting the Word of God,
whether written or handed on , has been entrusted exclusively to
the living teaching office of the Church , whose authority is
exercised in the name of Jesus Christ. This teaching office is not
above the Word of God, but serves it, teaching only what has been
handed on, listening to it devoutly, guarding it scrupulously and
explaining it faithfully in accord with a divine commission and
with the help of the Holy Spirit; it draws from this one deposit of
faith everything which it presents for belief as divinely revealed.
It is clear, therefore, that sacred tradition, sacred Scripture
and the teaching authority of the Church, in accord with God's most
wise design, are so linked and joined together that one cannot
stand without the others, and that all together and each in its own
way under the action of the one Holy Spirit contribute
effectively to the salvation of souls.
ITS INSPIRATION AND DIVINE INTERPRETATION
11. Those divinely revealed realities which are contained and
presented in sacred Scripture have been committed to writing under
the inspiration of the Holy Spirit. For holy mother Church,
relying on the belief of the Apostles (see John 20:31; 2 Tim. 3:16;
2 Peter 1:19-21; 3:15-16), holds that the books of both the Old and
New Testaments in their entirety, with all their parts, are sacred
and canonical because written under the inspiration of the Holy
Spirit, they have God as their author and have been handed on such
to the Church herself . In composing the sacred books, God
chose men and while employed by Him  they made use of their
powers and abilities, so that with Him acting in them and through
them , they, as true authors, consigned to writing everything
and only those things which He wanted .
Therefore since everything asserted by the inspired authors or
sacred writers must be held to be asserted by the Holy Spirit, it
follows that the books of Scripture must be acknowledged as
teaching solidly, faithfully and without error that truth which God
wanted put into the sacred writings  for the sake of our
salvation. Therefore "all Scripture is divinely inspired and has
its use for teaching the truth and refuting error, for reformation
of manners and discipline in right living, so that the man who
belongs to God may be efficient and equipped for good work of every
kind" (2 Tim. 3:16-17, Greek text).
12. However, since God speaks in sacred Scripture through men in
human fashion , the interpreter of sacred Scripture, in order to
see clearly what God wanted to communicate to us, should carefully
investigate what meaning the sacred writers really intended, and
what God wanted to manifest by means of their words.
To search out the intention of the sacred writers, attention
should be given, among other things, to "literary norms." For
truth is set forth and expressed differently in texts which are
variously historical, prophetic, poetic, or of other forms of
discourse. The interpreter must investigate what meaning the
sacred writer intended to express and actually expressed in
particular circumstances by using contemporary literary forms in
accordance with the situation of his own time and culture . For
the correct understanding of what the sacred author wanted to
assert, due attention must be paid to the customary and
characteristic styles of feeling, speaking and narrating which
prevailed at the time of the sacred writer, and to the patterns men
normally employed at the period in their everyday dealings with one
But, since holy Scripture must be read and interpreted in the
same spirit in which it was written , no less serious attention
must be given to the content and unity of the whole Scripture if
the meaning of the sacred texts is to be correctly worked out. The
living tradition of the whole Church must be taken into account
along with the harmony which exists between elements of the faith.
It is the task of exegetes to work according to these rules toward
a better understanding and explanation of the meaning of sacred
Scripture, so that through preparatory study the judgement of the
Church may mature. For all of what has been said about the way of
interpreting Scripture is subject finally to the judgement of the
Church, which carries out the divine commission and ministry of
guarding and interpreting the Word of God .
13. In sacred Scripture, therefore, while the truth and holiness
of God always remains intact, the marvelous "condescension" of
eternal wisdom is clearly shown, "that we may learn the gentle
kindness of God, which words cannot express, and how far He has
gone in adopting His language with thoughtful concern for our weak
human nature" . For the words of God, expressed in human
language, have been made like human discourse, just as the word of
the eternal Father, when He took Himself the flesh of human
weakness, was in every way made like men.
THE OLD TESTAMENT
14. In carefully planning and preparing the salvation of the
whole human race the God of infinite love, by a special
dispensation, chose for Himself a people to whom He would entrust
His promises. First He entered into a covenant with Abraham (see
Gen. 15:18) and, through Moses, with the people of Israel (see Ex.
24:8). To this people which He had acquired for Himself, He so
manifested Himself through words and deeds as the one true and
living God that Israel came to know by experience the ways of God
with men. Then, too, when God Himself spoke to them through the
mouth of the prophets, Israel daily gained a deeper and clearer
understanding of His ways and made them more widely known among the
nations (see Ps. 21:29; 95:1-3; Is. 2:1-4; Jer. 3:17). The plan of
salvation foretold by the sacred authors, recounted and explained
by them, is found as the true Word of God in the books of the Old
Testament: these books, therefore, written under divine
inspiration, so that by steadfastness and the encouragement of the
Scriptures we might have hope" (Rom. 15:4).
15. The principal purpose to which the plan of the old covenant
was directed was to prepare for the coming of Christ, the redeemer
of all and of the messianic kingdom, to announce this coming by
prophecy (see Luke 24:44, John 5:39; 1 Peter 1:10), and to indicate
its meaning through various types (see 1 Cor. 10:11). Now the
books of the Old Testament, in accordance with the state of mankind
before the time of salvation established by Christ, reveal to all
men the knowledge of God and of man and the ways in which God, just
and merciful, deals with men. These books, though they also
contain some things which are incomplete and temporary,
nevertheless show us true divine pedagogy . These same books,
then, give expression to a lively sense of God, contain a store of
sublime teachings about God, sound wisdom about human life, and a
wonderful treasury of prayers, and in them the mystery of our
salvation is present in a hidden way. Christians should receive
them with reverence.
16. God, the inspirer and author of both Testaments, wisely
arranged that the New Testament be hidden in the Old and that the
Old be made manifest in the New . For, though Christ
established the new covenant with His blood (see Luke 22:20; 1 Cor.
11:25), still the books of the Old Testament with all their parts,
caught up into the meaning of the proclamation of the Gospel ,
acquire and show forth their full meaning in the New Testament (see
Matt. 5:17; Luke 24:27; Rom. 16:25-26; 2 Cor. 3:14-16) and in turn
shed light on it and explain it.
THE NEW TESTAMENT
17. Word of God, which is the power of God for the salvation of
all who believe (see Rom. 1:16), is set forth and shows its power
in a most excellent way in the writings of the New Testament. For
when the fullness of time arrived (see Gal. 4:4), the Word was made
flesh and dwelt among us in His fullness of graces and truth (see
John 1:14). Christ established the Kingdom of God on earth,
manifested His Father and Himself by deeds and words, and completed
His work by His death, resurrection and glorious ascension and by
the sending of the Holy Spirit. Having been lifted up from the
earth, He draws all men to Himself (see John 12:32, Greek text), He
who alone has the words of eternal life (see John 6:68). This
mystery had not been manifested to other generations as it was now
revealed to His holy Apostles and prophets in the Holy Spirit (see
Eph. 3:4-6, Greek text), so that they might preach the Gospel, stir
up faith in Jesus, Christ and Lord, and gather together the Church.
Now the writings of the New Testament stand as a perpetual and
divine witness to these realities.
18. It is common knowledge that among all the Scriptures, even
those of the New Testament, the Gospels have a special preeminence,
and rightly so, for they are the principal witness for the life and
teaching of the Incarnate Word, our Saviour.
The Church has always and everywhere held and continues to hold
that the four Gospels are of apostolic origin. For what the
Apostles preached in fulfillment of the commission of Christ,
afterwards they themselves and apostolic men, under the inspiration
of the divine Spirit, handed on to us in writing: the foundation of
the faith, namely, the fourfold Gospel, according to Matthew, Mark,
Luke and John .
19. Holy Mother Church has firmly and with absolute constancy
held, and continues to hold, that the four Gospels just named,
whose historical character the Church unhesitatingly asserts,
faithfully hand on what Jesus Christ, while living among men,
really did and taught for their eternal salvation until the day He
was taken up into heaven (see Acts 1:1-2). Indeed, after the
ascension of the Lord the Apostles handed on to their hearers what
He had said and done. This they did with that clearer
understanding which they enjoyed  after they had been instructed
by the glorious events of Christ's life and taught by the light of
the Spirit of truth . The sacred authors wrote four Gospels,
selecting some things from the many which had bee handed on by word
of mouth or in writing, reducing some of them to a synthesis,
explaining some things in view of the situation of their churches,
and preserving the form of proclamation but always in such fashion
that they told us the honest truth about Jesus . For their
intention in writing was that either from their own memory and
recollections, or from the witness of those who "themselves from
the beginning were eyewitnesses and ministers of the Word" we might
know "the truth" concerning those matters about which we have been
instructed (see Luke 1:2-4).
20. Besides the four Gospels, the canon of the New Testament also
contains the epistles of St. Paul and other apostolic writings,
composed under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, by which
according to the wise plan of God, those matters which concern
Christ the Lord are confirmed, His true teaching is more and more
preached, the story is told of the beginnings of the Church and its
marvelous growth, and its glorious fulfillment is foretold.
For the Lord Jesus was with His Apostles as He had promised (see
Matt. 28:2)) and sent them the advocate Spirit who would lead them
into the fullness of truth (see John 16:13).
IN THE LIFE OF THE CHURCH
21. The Church has always venerated the Scriptures just as she
venerates the body of the Lord, since, especially in sacred
liturgy, she unceasingly receives and offers to the faithful the
bread of life from the table both of God's Word and of Christ's
Body. She has always maintained them, and continues to do so,
together with sacred tradition, as the supreme rule of faith,
since, as inspired by God and committed once and for all to
writing, they impart the Word of God Himself without change, and
make the voice of the Holy Spirit resound in the words of the
prophets and Apostles. Therefore, like the Christian religion
itself, all the preaching of the Church must be nourished and
regulated by sacred Scripture. For in the sacred books, the Father
who is in heaven meets His children with great love and speaks with
them; and the force and power in the word of God is so great that
it stands as the support and energy of the Church, the strength of
faith for her sons, the food of the soul, the pure and everlasting
source of spiritual life. Consequently these words are perfectly
applicable to sacred Scripture: "For the word of God is living and
active" (Heb. 4:12) and "it has power to build you up and give you
your heritage among all those who are sanctified" (Acts 20:32; see
1 Thess. 2:13).
22. Easy access to sacred Scripture should be provided for all
the Christian faithful. That is why the Church from the very
beginning accepted as her own that very ancient Greek translation
of the Old Testament which is called the Septuagint; and she has
always given a place of honor to other Eastern translations and
Latin ones, especially the Latin translation known as the Vulgate.
But since the Word of God should be accessible at all times, the
Church by her authority and with maternal concern sees to it that
suitable and correct translations are made into different
languages, especially from the original texts of the sacred books.
And should the opportunity arise and the Church authorities
approve, if these translations are produced in cooperation with the
separated brethren as well, all Christians will be able to use
23. The bride of the Incarnate Word, the Church taught by the
Holy Spirit, is concerned to move ahead toward a deeper
understanding of the sacred Scriptures so that she may increasingly
feed her sons with the divine words. Therefore, she also
encourages the study of the holy Fathers of both East and West and
of the sacred liturgies. Catholic exegetes then and other students
of sacred theology, working diligently together and using
appropriate means, should devote their energies, under the watchful
care of the sacred teaching office of the Church, to an exploration
and exposition of the divine writings. This should be so done that
as many ministers of the divine word as possible will be able
effectively to provide nourishment of the Scriptures for the People
of God, to enlighten their minds , strengthen their wills and set
men's hearts on fire with the love of God . The sacred Synod
encourages the sons of the Church and Biblical scholars to continue
energetically, following the mind of the Church, with the work they
have so well begun, with a constant renewal of vigor .
24. Sacred theology rests on the written Word of God, together
with sacred tradition, as its primary and perpetual foundation. By
scrutinizing in the light of faith all truth stored up in the
mystery of Christ, theology is most powerfully strengthened and
constantly rejuvenated by that Word. For the sacred Scriptures
contain the Word of God and since they are inspired really are the
Word of God; and so the study of the sacred page is, as it were,
the soul of sacred theology . By the same word of Scripture the
ministry of the Word also, that is, pastoral preaching, catechetics
and all Christian instruction, in which the liturgical homily must
hold the foremost place, is nourished in a healthy way and
flourishes in a holy way.
25. Therefore, all the clergy must hold fast to the sacred
Scriptures through diligent sacred reading and careful study,
especially the priests of Christ and others, such as deacons and
catechists whoa re legitimately active in the ministry of the Word.
This is to be done so that none of them will become "an empty
preacher of the word of God outwardly, who is not a listener to it
inwardly"  since they must share the abundant wealth of the
divine Word with the faithful committed to them, especially in the
sacred liturgy. The sacred Synod also earnestly and especially
urges all the Christian faithful, especially Religious, to learn by
frequent reading of the divine Scriptures the "excellent knowledge
of Jesus Christ" (Phil. 3:8). "For ignorance of the Scriptures is
ignorance of Christ" . Therefore, they should gladly put
themselves in touch with the sacred text itself, whether it be
through the liturgy, rich in the divine Word or through devotional
reading, or through instructions suitable for the purpose and other
aids which, in our time with approval and active support of the
shepherds of the Church, are commendably spread everywhere. And
let them remember that prayer should accompany the reading of
sacred Scripture, so that God and man may talk together; for "we
speak to Him when we pray; we hear Him when we read the divine
It devolves on sacred bishops "who have the apostolic teaching"
 to give the faithful entrusted to them suitable instruction in
the right use of the divine books, especially the New Testament and
above all the Gospels. This can be done through translations of
the sacred texts, which are to be provided with the necessary and
really adequate explanations so that the children of the Church may
safely and profitably become conversant with the sacred Scriptures
and be penetrated with their spirit.
Furthermore, editions of the sacred Scriptures, provided
with suitable footnotes, should be prepared also for the sue of non-
Christians and adapted to their situation. Both pastors of souls
and Christians generally should see to the wide distribution of
these in one way or another.
26. In this way, therefore, through the reading and study of the
sacred books "the word of God may spread rapidly and be glorified"
(2 Thess. 3;1) and the treasure of revelation, entrusted to the
Church, may more and more fill the hearts of men. Just as the life
of the Church is strengthened through more frequent celebration of
the Eucharistic mystery, similarly we may hope for a new stimulus
for the life of the Spirit from a growing reverence for the word of
God, which "lasts forever" (Is. 40:8; see 1 Peter 1:23-25).
The entire text and all the individual elements which have been
set forth in this Constitution have pleased the Fathers. And by
the Apostolic power conferred on us by Christ, we, together with
the Venerable Fathers, in the Holy Spirit, approve, decree and
enact them; and we order that what has been thus enacted in Council
be promulgated, to the glory of God.
Rome, at St. Peter's 18 November, 1965.
I, PAUL, Bishop of the Catholic Church
There follow the signatures of the Fathers.
 Cf. St. Augustine, DE CATECHIZANDIS RUDIBUS, C.IV, 8: PL.
 Cf. Mt. 11:27; Jn. 1:14 and 17; 14:6; 17:1-3; 2 Cor. 3:16 and
4:6; Eph. 1:3-14.
 EPISTLE TO DIOGNETUS, c. VII, 4: Funk, APOSTOLIC FATHERS, I, p.
 First Vatican Council, DOGMATIC CONSTITUTION ON THE CATHOLIC
FAITH, Chap. 3, "On Faith:" Denzinger 1789 (3008).
 Second Council of Orange, Canon 7: Denzinger 180 (377); First
Vatican Council, loc. cit.: Denzinger 1791 (3010).
 First Vatican Council, DOGMATIC CONSTITUTION ON THE CATHOLIC
FAITH, Chap. 2, "On Revelation:" Denzinger 1786 (3005).
 Ibid: Denzinger 1785 and 1786 (3004 and 3005).
 Cf. Matt. 28:19-20, and Mark 16:15; Council of Trent, session
IV, DECREE ON SCRIPTURAL SANONS: Denzinger 783 (1501).
 Cf. Council of Trent, loc. cit.; First Vatican Council, session
III, DOGMATIC CONSTITUTION ON THE CATHOLIC FAITH, Chap. 2, "On
Revelation:" Denzinger 1787 (3006).
 St. Irenaeus, AGAINST HERETICS III, 3, 1: PG 7, 848; Harvey, 2,
 Cf. Second Council of Nicea: Denzinger 303 (602); Fourch
Council of Constance, session X, Canon 1: Denzinger 336 (650-652).
 Cf. First Vatican Council, DOGMATIC CONSTITUTION ON THE
CATHOLIC FAITH, Chap. 4, "On Faith and Reason:" Denzinger 1800
 Cf. Council of Trent, session IV, loc. cit.: Denzinger 783
 Cf. Pius XII, apostolic constitution, MUNIFICENTISSIMUS DEUS,
Nov. 1, 1950: AAS 42 (1950) p. 756; Collected Writings of St.
Cyprian, Letter 66, 8: Hartel, III B, p. 733: "The Church [is]
people united with the priest and the pastor together with his
 Cf. First Vatican Council, DOGMATIC CONSTITUTION ON THE
CATHOLIC FAITH, Chap. 3 "On Faith:" Denzinger 1792 (3011).
 Cf. Pius XII, Encyclical Letter HUMANI GENERIS, Aug. 12, 1950:
AAS 42 (1950) pp. 568-569: Denzinger 2314 (3886).
 Cf. First Vatican Council, DOGMATIC CONSTITUTION ON THE
CATHOLIC FAITH, Chap. 3 "On Revelation:" Denzinger 1787 (3006);
Biblical Commission, DECREE of June 18, 1915: Denzinger 2180
(3629): EB 420; Holy Office, EPISTLE of Dec. 22, 1923: EB 499.
 Cf. Pius XII, Encyclical Letter DIVINO AFFLANTE SPIRITU, Sept.
30, 1943: AAS 35 (1943) p. 314; Enchiridion Biblic. (EB) 556.
 "In" and "for" man: cf. Heb 1:1 and 4:7; ("in"): 2 Sm. 23:2;
Mt. 1:22 and various places; ("for"): First Vatican Council, SCHEMA
ON CATHOLIC DOCTRINE, note 9: Coll. Lac. VII, 522.
 Leo XII, Encyclical PROVIDENTISSIMUS DEUS, Nov. 18, 1893:
Denzinger 1952 (3293): EB 125.
 Cf. St. Augustine, GEN. AD LITT. 2, 9, 20: PL 34, 270-271;
Epistle 82,3: PL 33, 277: CSEL 34,2, p. 354; St. Thomas, "On
Truth", Q.12, A.2, C; Council of Trent, session IV, SCRIPTURAL
CANONS: Denzinger 783 (1501); Leo XIII, Encyclical Letter
PROVIDENTISSIMUS DEUS: EB 121, 124; Pius XII, Encyclical Letter
DIVINO AFFLANTE SPIRITU: EB 539.
 St. Augustine, CITY OF GOD, XVII,6,2: PL 41, 537: CSEL XL, 2,
 St. Augustine, ON CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE III, 18, 26: PL 34, 75-76.
 Pius XII, Loc. cit.: Denzinger 2294 (3829-3830): EB 557-562.
 Cf. Benedict XV, Encyclical Letter SPIRITUS PARACLITUS, Sept.
15, 1920: EB 469. St. Jerome, "In Galacians" 5, 19-20: PL 26, 417
 Cf. First Vatican Council, DOGMATIC CONSTITUTION ON THE
CATHOLIC FAITH, Chapter 2, "On Revelation;" Denzinger 1788 (3007).
 St. John Chrysostom IN GENESIS 3, 8 (Homily 17, 1): PG 53,
134; "Attemperatio" [in English "Suitable adjustment"] in Greek
 Pius XI, Encyclical Epistle MIT BRENNENDER SORGE, March 14,
1937: AAS 29 (1937) p. 51.
 St. Augustine, QUEST IN HEPT. 2, 73: PL 34, 623.
 St. Irenaeus AGAINST HERETICS III, 21, 3: PG 7, 950: (Same as
25, 1: Harvey 2, p. 115). St Cyril of Jerusalem, CATECH. 4, 35: PG
33, 497. Theodore of Mopsuestia, IN Soph. 1, 4-6: PG 66, 452D-453A.
 Cf. St. Irenaeus, AGAINST HERETICS, III, 11, 8: PG 7, 885;
Sagnard Edition, p. 194.
[Due to the necessities of translation, footnote 2 follows footnote
3 in the text of Article 19]
 Cf. John 14:26; 16:13.
 John 2:22; 12:16; Cf. 14:26; 16:12-13; 7:39.
 Cf. instruction HOLY MOTHER CHURCH edited by Pontifical
Consilium for Promotion of Bible Studies: AAS 56 (1964) p. 715.
 Cf. Pius XII, Encyclical Letter DIVINO AFFLANTE SPIRITU: EB
551, 553, 567; Pontifical Biblical Commission, INSTRUCTION ON
PROPER TEACHING OF SACRED SCRIPTURE IN SEMINARIES AND RELIGIOUS
COLLEGES, May 13, 1950: AAS (1950) pp. 495-505.
 Cf. Pius XII, ibid: EB 569.
 Cf. Leo XII, Encyclical Letter PROVIDENTISSIMUS DEUS: EB 114;
Benedict XV, Encyclical Letter SPIRITUS PARACLITUS: EB 483.
 St. Augustine, SERMONS, 179, 1: PL 38, 966.
 St. Jerome COMMENTARY ON ISAIAH, Prol: PL 24, 17; Cf. BENEDICT
XV, Encyclical Letter SPIRITUS PARACLITUS: EB 475-480; Pius XII,
Encyclical Letter DIVINO AFFLANTE SPIRITU: EB 544.
 St. Ambrose, ON THE DUTIES OF MINISTERS I< 20, 88: PL 16, 50.
 St. Irenaeus, AGAINST HERETICS IV, 32, 1: PG 7, 1071; (same as
49, 2) Harvey, 2, p. 255.